英汉伟德国际bv1946报道中转喻的批评对比语言学分析—以中美亚投行相关报道为例

来源: www.sblunwen.com 作者:vicky 发布时间:2018-05-16 伟德国际_伟德国际bv1946字数:36205字
伟德国际_伟德国际bv1946编号: sb2018050614272621035 伟德国际_伟德国际bv1946语言:English 伟德国际_伟德国际bv1946类型:硕士毕业伟德国际_伟德国际bv1946
本文是一篇语言学毕业伟德国际_伟德国际bv1946,本文以概念转喻理论和识解操作理论为框架,从批评话语分析角度来研究转喻。本研究尝试回答三个研究问题:伟德国际bv1946报道采取何种转喻来实现批评话语分析中的话语
本文是一篇语言学毕业伟德国际_伟德国际bv1946,本文选取了中美两国主流媒体对于“亚投行”问题的相关报道,识别其中的指称转喻,谓词转喻及言外转喻,并对它们进行详细的批评性分析。语篇的分析,揭示了中美两国报道中所隐藏的不同意识形态。源自英国始于1946-伟德国际1946英国媒体认为源自英国始于1946-伟德国际1946英国是亚投行的发起者,其目的是更好地促进自身及区域的基础设施发展,经济发展。而美国媒体则认为源自英国始于1946-伟德国际1946英国是亚投行的领导者,其成立亚投行的目的是挑战美国在国际金融中的地位。

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1.1 Research Background
Critical discourse analysis (CDA) and cognitive linguistics have developed intoinfluential research paradigm since they came into being since 1970s. CDA is a kindof discourse-analytical study. CDA centered on how discourses in social context areemployed to express ideology and identity. Ideology, which is an essential concept inCDA, is often used to construct diplomatic relations. It is consistent with the cognitiveprocess of forming mental representations through discourse. We construct our owncognition of certain social realities from discourses, which is formed in socialbackground, instead of our own direct perception and interaction.
The research framework of traditional CDA research is Hallidayan ‘systemicfunctional grammar’. Researches employed this framework mainly focus on thefunction of language in social structure, which mostly pay little attention to thecognition mechanism of language use. That is to say, CDA is not an independentlinguistic theory, just as what Chilton (2005) has figured out that CDA study alwaysintegrates certain linguistic theory with closely related social theory. However, CDAincludes various schools with different methodologies. But these different approachesare from critical perspective in common. The methodologies employed in the thesisare in the domain of cognitive linguistics.
CDA research aims to represent how ideological discursive practices areexpressed with certain words, phrase and clauses. Researches of cognitive linguisticsfocus on the way in which our own ideas are constructed through different levels oflinguistic units, such as metaphor, metonymy, mental space, etc. That is to say, these two schools of linguistics are both aimed to reveal the meaning lying behind thediscourse, which is produced by people with particular aim. Therefore, cognitivelinguistics can offer a new research framework for CDA, to analyze and identifylanguage manipulation strategies in discourse. That is to say, cognitive linguistics isable to provide CDA with a new research perspective and research framework.
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1.2 Research Significance
As a research framework, CDA researches on various types of data fromdifferent kinds of approaches. Ideology, as one essential concept in CDA, connectsclosely with our own cognition, which tends to be more subjective. However, duringlong time in the past, traditional CDA researches do not draw enough attention tocombining CDA with theories of cognitive linguistics. Van Dijk has figured out thesignificance of cognition in his research model. Lakoff & Johnson (1987) firstlyproposed that metonymy is a thinking way, which builds people's thinking and actions.Since then, on the basis of what they have found, researchers, from abroad and home,put forward various researches. However, metonymy study from Critical DiscourseAnalysis is still limited.
The research objects, namely the data, are mainly about immigrant discourses,put forward by foreign researchers. Among the limited home researches, the researchdata are mainly about foreign news about certain foreign issues or foreign news aboutcertain Chinese issues. Therefore, this thesis intends to form a comparative study,whose data are news reports on “AIIB” issue from both Chinese media and Americanmedia. The thesis aims to reveal the dominant ideologies in both Chinese and Americanews media, and to figure out the similarity and difference between the two countries’position and how they are formed. Lastly, it demonstrates how cognitive linguisticsand CDA are integrated.
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CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Studies on Metonymy
Metonymy was seen as a figure of speech in traditional view. Compared with thetraditional view, the current view holds that metonymy was a conceptual mappingwithin a single domain (Lakoff & Turner 1989). Besides, concerning abouthighlighting, researchers considered metonymy as selecting and arranging theinformation that language conveys.
2.1.1 Definition of Metonymy
In the long past, many researches draws attention on the traditional definition ofmetonymy. However, along with the rapid development of cognitive linguistics,researchers tend to treat metonymy as a cognitive analyzing tool instead of a literaryor figurative tool.
Ancient Greek philosopher believed that metonymy is a kind of rhetoric device,They treated metonymy as using a specific term to substitute one specific thing foranother. Metonymy originally means changing the name to refer to some closelyrelated something. That is to say, it proved to be a substitution, which can beexplained by X STANDS FOR Y. In Chinese, jie dai is such kind of rhetoricaldevices, working as metonymy in the traditional definition. Jie dai unfolds therelationship between real things and it describes the replacement of names of realthing. From the above definition, we can conclude that previous scholars or linguistsbelieve that metonymy is related to name institution, which represents one thing foranother thing closely related. However, in many circumstances, explanation in this way cannot work sometimes. Therefore, a new perspective to research on metonymyis extremely needed for us.
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2.2 Studies on Metonymy From the Perspective of Critical DiscourseAnalysis
2.2.1 Critical Discourse Analysis
CDA is offer an access to revealing ideology through language use and discourse.CDA, which has the critical nature, has become an interdisciplinary languageanalyzing model combines social, psychology theories with linguistic theories. CDAaims at revealing the behind ideology of speakers to improve critical languageawareness of readers. Consequently, CDA not only concerns about what language is,but also considers why language is used in this way. The main data of CDA is newsdiscourses because recently mass media has greatly influenced the way people viewthe world. To conclude, CDA aims to establish relationship between micro texts andmacro socio-cultural reality.
Recently, CDA has developed into an influential part of linguistics. Meanwhile,it has been researched by more and more scholars. It has been developed severalmature research approaches in CDA: French CDA, historical-discourse approach,social Semiotic approach, Social-cognitive approach, and discursive practiceapproach.
Social-cognitive approach analyzes discourse from the perspective of cognition,discourse, and society. This approach takes context into account in discoursecomprehension. Discourse, cognition and society are the three modes of CDA.
To sum up, these approaches discussed above all make great influence to thedevelopment of CDA studies.
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CHAPTER III THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ........................13
3.1 Speakers’ Strategies in CDA ........................13
3.2 A Cognitive Approach to Realize Speakers’ Strategies in CDA ....................15
CHAPTER ⅣMETHODOLOGY .....................19
4.1 Research Questions ........................19
4.2 Data Resources and Collection.......................19
CHAPTER ⅤDISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS ...................23
5.1 A Critical Analysis of Metonymy in News Reports on AIIB .........................23
5.1.1 Referential Metonymies.........................24
5.1.2 Predicational Metonymies ....................31

CHAPTER ⅤDISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS

5.1 A Critical Analysis of Metonymy in News Reports on AIIB
In previous chapter, the three types of cognitive metonymy proposed by Pantherand Thornburg have been analyzed in detail. In this chapter, the analysis of the threekinds will be presented in detailed one by one.
Table 5. 1 Classification of identified metonymies

According to the metonymy identification and classification procedure stated inlast chapter, each kind metonymy is distributed as the above table. Referentialmetonymy accounts for the largest proportion in both media. Illocutionary metonymyoccupies the least proportion. Following will be the detailed analysis of metonymiesidentified.
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CHAPTER Ⅵ CONCLUSION

6.1 Major Findings of the Study
With detailed discussion in the five chapters above, several findings have beenexplored both theoretically and practically from American and Chinese AIIB newsreports.
First, it is of significance in theory to testify the applicability of ConceptualMetonymy Theory and Construal operation Theory in CDA of news discourse. SomeCDA researchers have enriched the interface study of cognitive linguistics and CDA.They research specific theory of cognitive linguistics, such as Conceptual MetaphorTheory and Conceptual Blending Theory, within the framework of CDA. Conceptualmetonymy, as a vital part of cognitive linguistics, deserves enough attention ofresearchers. However, critical metonymy analysis has still been at the explorationstage. To some extent, this study is an attempt for the integration of metonymy andCDA. More attention should be paid to integrate abundant research results ofCognitive Linguistics with that of CDA to enrich the interface study of the two.
Second, this study has tried to construct a theoretical framework for criticalmetonymy analysis in discourse. With the theoretical possibility to integrateconceptual metonymy theory, construal operation theory and CDA, this thesis puts forward a theoretical framework of critical metonymy analysis. This theoreticalframework specifies how different types of metonymy are used in CDA. Besides, thisframework clarifies metonymies should be analyzed at different levels: linguistic level,pragmatic level and cognitive level. This framework proposes the theoretical way forthe detailed metonymy analysis of American and Chinese AIIB news reports.
Last but not least, it is also crucial to collect American and Chinese AIIB newsreports in the influential new media as linguistic data which is thought to be objectiveand transparent. This study directs at objective interpretation and explanation of news,and meanwhile, exploration of the attitudes, emotions and ideologies represented byAmerican and Chinese news media. The findings display that metonymy is afundmental cognitive tool widely employed in both American and Chinese newsreports. What’s more, American and Chinese news media stands for two differentkinds of attitudes and ideologies in their society respectively. This study should beseen as a practical application of Conceptual Metonymy Theory, Construal Operationand CDA in news discourse, which may offer implications for related studies in thefuture.
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